Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology & Reanimation
General Anaesthesia - ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Intraoperative Temperature Monitoring with Zero Heat Flux Technology (3M SpotOn Sensor) in Comparison with Tympanic and Oesophageal Temperature and Hypotermia Risk Factors: An Observational Study

1.

Department of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation, Dokuz Eylül University School of Medicine, İzmir, Turkey

2.

Department of General Surgery, Dokuz Eylül University School of Medicine, İzmir, Turkey

3.

Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Ege University Faculty of Science, İzmir, Turkey

Turk J Anaesthesiol Reanim 2021; 49: 100-106
DOI: 10.5152/TJAR.2020.33
Read: 424 Downloads: 41 Published: 21 April 2021

Objective: Inadvertent hypothermia (body temperature below 35oC) is a common and avoidable challenge during surgery under anaesthesia. It is related to coagulation (clotting) disorders, an increase in blood loss, and a higher rate of wound infection. One of the methods for non-invasive monitoring of the core body temperature is the 3M SpotOn zero heat flux method. In this approach, sensors placed at the frontal region of the patient measure the skin temperature by creating an isothermic channel. The study aimed to determine the risk factors for hypothermia and compare the 3M SpotOn zero heat flux method with the tympanic membrane (eardrum) and oesophageal (food pipe) temperature measurement methods.

Design: Observational.

Data sources: The patients’ data were collected, including age, gender, weight, BMI, other illnesses, smoking history, type of anaesthesia, duration of surgery, operating room temperature, pulse rate, blood pressure, blood loss, and transfusions. Body temperature was measured by the tympanic membrane method before and after surgery, oesophageal method during surgery, and SpotOn measurements throughout all three periods were recorded. 

Eligibility criteria: Inclusion criteria was: adult patients, both genders, who had undergone major abdominal cancer surgery at the trialists’ institution, in whom the SpotOn zero heat flux, tympanic membrane, and oesophageal temperature measurement methods had all been used. Participant exclusion criteria was the absence of recorded data.

Results: In this study, inadvertent intraoperative hypothermia incidence was 38.1% in the recovery room. Although gender, presence of comorbidities, history of smoking, administration of epidural anaesthesia, and requirement of blood transfusion [red blood cells (RBCs) and fresh frozen plasma (FFP)] did not affect hypothermia significantly during admission to the recovery room, prewarming the patient throughout the operation prevented the occurrence of hypothermia significantly (p=0.004). Additionally, as the American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) physical status score worsened, the rate of hypothermia increased significantly (Frequency: 1st degree, 29.4%; 2nd degree, 47.5%; 3rd degree, 66.7%; Χ2Slope- p=0.047). 

Conclusion: The most significant risk factor was found to be not prewarming the patient as a strict procedure, and as the ASA physical status score worsened, the rate of hypothermia increased significantly. Besides, the SpotOn method provided temperature measurements as good as the oesophageal temperature measurements. Clinical Trial registration: ISRCTN 14027708.

Cite this article as: Aksu Erdost H, Özkardeşler S, Değirmenci AK, Dalak RM, Terzi C. Intraoperative Temperature Monitoring with Zero Heat Flux Technology (3M SpotOn Sensor) in Comparison with Tympanic and Oesophageal Temperature and Hypotermia Risk Factors: An Observational Study. Turk J Anaesthesiol Reanim 2021; 49(2): 100-6.

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