Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology & Reanimation
CASE REPORT

Guillain-Barré Syndrome and Human Immunodeficiency Virus

1.

Uludağ Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi, Anesteziyoloji ve Reanimasyon Anabilim Dalı, Yoğun Bakım Bilim Dalı, Bursa, Türkiye

2.

Uludağ Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi, Enfeksiyon Hastalıkları ve Mikrobiyoloji Anabilim Dalı, Bursa, Türkiye

3.

Özel Medicabil Hastanesi, Bursa, Türkiye

Turk J Anaesthesiol Reanim 2014; 42: 100-102
DOI: 10.5152/TJAR.2013.51
Read: 554 Downloads: 250 Published: 01 October 2019

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute disease characterised by symmetrical muscle weakness, loss of sensation and reflex. There is usually a viral infection at the beginning of the disease. Here, we report a GBS case which did not respond to any treatment strategy at first and was diagnosed as Human Immunodeficiency Virus positive (HIV+) during the search for the aetiology. A 32-year-old male patient who presented to a medical centre with symptoms of gait disturbance and arm and leg numbness was found to have albuminocytologic dissociation upon cerebrospinal fluid examination. After the diagnosis of GBS, immunoglobulin G (IVIG) therapy (400 mg kg-1 day-1 5 days) was started as a standard therapy. This therapy was repeated due to a lack of improvement of symptoms. During this therapy, the patient was sent to our clinic with symptoms of respiratory failure and tetraplegia. He was conscious, cooperative, haemodynamically stable and his arterial blood gas analyses were: pH: 7.28, PaO2 : 74.4 mmHg, PCO2 : 63.8 mmHg. He was intubated, mechanically ventilated and underwent plasmapheresis. After the investigation of aetiology, HIV(+), CD4/CD8: 0.17, absolute CD4: 71 cells mL-1 were detected and antiretroviral therapy was started. The patient died from multiple organ failure due to sepsis on day 35. In conclusion, HIV infection should be kept in mind in GBS patients, especially those not responding to routine treatment. As a result, not only could the patient receive early and adequate treatment, but also HIV infection transmission would be avoided.

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